article Strabismus references

Magic eyes


article Ortoptic management of intermittent exotropia.

articleTreatment options in intermittent exotropia: A critical appraisal.

article Optometric management of binocular dysfunctions secondary to head trauma: Case reports.

article Strabismus therapy in private practice: Cure rates after three months of therapy.

article Orthoptic treatment of strabismus.

article Role of optometric vision therapy for surgically treated strabismus patients.

article Optometric therapy of divergence excess strabismus.

article Ortoptic treatment of strabismus.

article The long range results of ortoptic treatment of strabismus.

article The effectiveness of ortoptics alone in selected cases of exodeviations: The immediate results and several years later.

article Treatment of intermittent esotropia incorporating peripheral awareness training.

article Accommodative esotropia: efficacy of therapy.

article Success in strabismus therapy.



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"Cross eye"or "Wall eye"are some of the common names describing an eye condition where one eye is turned in a diff rent direction than the dominant eye used for seeing. This divergence can be towards the nose and is then called esotropia (from the Greek eso, meaning inwards). Esotropia account for almost 50% of all strabismus cases. When the eye is turned out it is called exotropia (from the Greek exo, Strabismusmeaning outward). The divergence can be from very slight and almost imperceptible to severe where the pupil is almost hidden in the corner of the divergent eye. The strabismic eye can also go up and is called hyperphoria (from the Greek hyper, meaning above), or it can be down and is referred to as hypophoria (from the Greek hypo, meaning down). Strabismus is usually present at a very early age but can also develop in adults.

The cause of strabismus is not known at present. The usual approach is to recommend surgical adjustment of the eye muscles. Unfortunately surgery seldom achieve more than the aperance of straight eyes.

There is higher than 80% success rate for correcting Strabismus through Vision Training.

Most parents are unaware that there are treatment procedures available with significantly higher success rate than invasive surgery. There is abundant research evidence that Vision Training is effective in restoring not only straight eyes but also normal three dimensional vision.

In many cases simple eye-exercises are all that's needed. In the Magic eyes workshop you will learn what exercises are needed to restore normal vision. The success depends on close cooperation between parent and child. The time needed to achieve the desired result may vary. In most cases you will see positive results after a few days of Vision Training.

How to test for Strabismus

To determine the degree of divergence use a small penlight and shine it into the eyes of the child. The reflection of the penlight should be approximately at the center of the pupil.






Cross over test

The cross-over test

To reveal the full extent of divergence you can do a cross-over test. Use something that will cover the eye and transfer it from eye to eye. The longer the eye is covered the more disruptive it is to the fusion. Sometime this test is also done with semi-transparent material so you can see if there is latent (hidden) strabismus. If latent strabismus is present then the affected eye will turn behind the cover. The medical term for hidden strabismus is heterodoxies.

Ambliopia is often associated with strabismus since the brain switch off the visual input for the divergent eye. Effective treatment therefore involve working with both problems. Fortunately Vision training is highly effective for both amblyopia and strabismus.